General information

Course type AMUPIE
Module title Reasoning
Language English
Module lecturer prof. UAM dr hab. Mariusz Urbański
Lecturer's email
Lecturer position professor
Faculty Faculty of Psychology and Cognitive Science
Semester 2022/2023 (summer)
Duration 60


- Reasoning: what is it?
- Reasoning with quantifiers: syllogistic.
- Reasoning with questions: Inferential Erotetic Logic.
- Reasoning with uncertainty: Abduction.
- Abductive Question-Answer System for CPL.
- Neural-symbolic systems.

Module aim (aims)

The course is aimed at deepening participants’ insights into contemporary theory and practice of logical analysis of
reasoning and inference. On the theoretical side, we shall examine some models of logical analysis of reasoning, like syllogistic, logic of questions, abduction, and their applications in research on human cognition. On the practical side, we shall go in-depth into various ways of modelling abductive reasoning, to study the strengths and weaknesses of different formal methods vis-´a-vis real reasoning processes.

Pre-requisites in terms of knowledge, skills and social competences (where relevant)

Working knowledge of syntax, semantics and metalogic of classical logic, propositional modal alethic logics and three-valued logics. Working knowledge of empirical research methodology and psychometrics.


110 pts possible:
• Tutorials (90 pts):
– 8 tasks (5 pts each), at the end of each in-class meeting, concerning topics just covered;
– term paper (50 pts); the topic of your choice, but approved.
• Final exam (20 pts): open-book.

Reading list

- Stenning and van Lambalgen, Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, The MIT Press, 2008.
- Bart Geurts, “Reasoning with Quantifiers”, ch. 12 of J. E. Adler & L. Rips (eds.) Reasoning. Studies of Human Inference and Its Foundations., Cambridge UP, 2008.
- Andrzej Wiśniewski, “Questions, Inferences, and Scenarios”, College Publications, 2013.
- John Woods, “Reorienting the Logic of Abduction”, ch. 6 of L. Magnani & T. Bertolotti (eds.) Handbook of Model-Based Science, Springer, 2017.
- Artur S. d’Avila Garcez, Krysia Broda, and Dov M. Gabbay, Neural-Symbolic Learning Systems: Foundations and Applications. Springer-Verlag, London, 2002.
- Szymon Chlebowski, Andrzej Gajda, “Abductive Question-Answer System (AQAS) for Classical Propositional Logic”. In: Henning Christiansen, H´el`ene Jaudoin, Panagiotis Chountas, Troels Andreasen, Henrik Legind Larsen (eds), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10333: Proceedings of Flexible Query Answering Systems–12th International Conference, pp. 3–14, 2017.