General information

Module title Mineral resources in Europe: geology, environment and economics
Language English
Module lecturer prof. UAM dr hab. Agata Duczmal-Czernikiewicz
Lecturer's email
Lecturer position prof. UAM
Faculty Faculty of Geographical and Geological Sciences
Semester 2021/2022 (winter)
Duration 45


Module aim (aims)

Knowledge about distribution, geology, economics and basic applications of the main minerals resources in Europe (in the metallic, industrial and energy fields); environmental impact of exploration and processing of ore deposits.

Pre-requisites in terms of knowledge, skills and social competences (where relevant)

Not relevant


Lecture: 1 mDefinitions (ore, resources); classification of deposits and a shortage of raw materials, history ofuses of ore and minerals. Structure of lithosphereand crust and. Basic types of rock in spite of chemistry and environmental concerns. 2 Elements, minerals and rock classification. Rock and ore forming geological processes. Metallogenesis. Major and minor geological units in Europe. Structure and quality of ore; land access and law policy. Environmental, technologic and economic factors of mineral resources exploration 3 Metallic resources and European metallogenic provinces. Base metals: copper deposits: examples from Germany and Poland (kupferschiefer type). Lead and zinc provinces in Scotland, Ireland and Poland (Pomorzany Mine).4. Technology elements in Europe (titanium, lithium, cadmium and arsenic – antimony): deposits, demand, export. Magmatic Li deposits in Spain; Fe –Ti-V formation deposits in Poland.Strategic metals. 5 Energy mineral resources. Fossil fuels: coal basins in Europe; lignite and bituminous coal production and related environmental concerns; use and quality. 6 Crude oil and natural gas: the origin, geology, production and environmental concerns. Oil and gas reserves. Unconventional sources of energy in Poland. 7 Nuclear energy: uranium deposits in Czech Republic, Spain and France. Uranium resources, and production.Nuclear waste disposal. Geothermal systems in Poland. 8. Industrial minerals and deposits: Stone, sand and gravels in construction aggregate. Gypsum feldspar and strontium distribution in Europe. Trade and demand. 9. Kaolinite and bentonite clay, talc and asbestos: geology, production and connection with weathering in geological periods, hydrothermal and metamorphic processes. 10 Chemical minerals and rocks, origin, geology and production: limestone, dolomite, salt. Distribution of evaporate basin, exploration methods (traditional vs Frasch process), prices and trade. 11. Potash and phosphate production and use in agriculture field. Geology of deposits, origin and reserves in Europe.12 Precious metals and gems, Geology of silver and gold deposits in Poland, production, markets, reserves. Basic applications. 13 Strategic and critical materials and resources in Europe. Prices. Trade.14 Protection of deposits and protection of environment. Rehabilitation of waste, tailings and recycling. Law in Poland in the matter of conventional and unconventional energy resources 15.Methods of exploration (deep see deposits, deep land deposits, open pits) and environment protection during exploration of mineral resources in the east and west Europe.Training course – include one trip to an active Polish mine (selected one of: copper- KGHM, salt –Kłodawa, or lignite –Bełchatów); geology of deposits, methods of exploration and processing.

Reading list

Dill H., 2010: The “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology (from aluminum to zirconium): Earth-Science Reviews 100, 1–420.Craig J.R.,Vaughan D.J., B.J. Skinner B.J., 2003:(in Polish - ZasobyZiemi), Wyd. Nauk. PWN, 502 pp.Cox D.P., Singer D.A. (ed), 1986: Minerals deposit models. USGS Geological Survey, 1693, 333pp.Kesler S.E., Simon A.C., 2015: Mineral resources, economics and environment, Cambridge University Press, 434pp.Levorsen A.I., 1972:Oil and gasgeology (in Polish- Geologia ropy naftowej i gazu ziemnego), Wyd. Geol. Warszawa, 569 pp.Misra K.U. 2008:Understandig Mineral Deposits, Kluver Academic Publ., 845 pp.Moon C.J., Wheatley M.K.G., Evans, A.M. 2006: Introduction to Mineral exploration, Blackwell Publishing, 481 pp. Ney R. (ed.)2004: Mineral resources in Poland (in Polish - Surowce mineralne Polski: Surowce metaliczne, Wyd. Centrum PPGSMiE PAN Krakow, 224 pp.Ridley J., 2013: Ore deposits geoology, Cambridge University Press, 390 pp.Robb. L., 2004: Introduction to Ore forming processes. Blackwell Publishing., 373 pp.Smirnow W.I. 1986. Geologiazłóżkopalin użytecznych, WydGeol.Warszawa 580, str.; Mineral Yearbook,